Office Of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid M.S.Al-Hakeem - Books-Islamic Laws Simplified - Ritual Purity (Taharah)

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RITUAL PURITY (TAHARAH)
 
 
Introduction
 
Taharah (ritual purity) is divided into two types:
 
(1)   Taharah from hadath i.e. incorporeal impurifying occurrences.
(2)   Taharah from najasah i.e. physical ritual impurities.
 
Hadath is an impurifying occurrence which if they take place then the person is considered to be in a state of ritual impurity. The hadath is of two types:
 
(1)   Minor, which is removed through wudhu (ablution by water) or tayammum (ablution by earth).
(2)   Major, which is removed through ghusl (ritual bathing) or tayammum.
 
Whenever water is referred to in this chapter as a purifying agent in wudhu, ghusl, etc., this means unmixed water which can be called water unconditionally without any qualification, such as rain water, river water, well water, etc. But if it is mixed with something else to such a degree that it cannot be called water without any qualification, such as grape water, rose water, etc., then it is not the subject matter here.
 
The Causes of Hadath
 
Ruling 9: The things which cause minor hadath and require wudhu or tayammum are as follows:
 
(1) & (2) The exiting of urine and faeces from their normal places, but the obligatory precaution is for even when they exit from other than their normal places, if it is correct to call the exiting substance urine or faeces.
(3) Exiting of wind from the anal passage, and also from elsewhere according to obligatory precaution, if it is of the type which comes out of the anal passage.
(4) The sleep which overcomes consciousness.
(5) Anything which overcomes the intellectual faculty, such as unconsciousness, intoxication, etc. as an obligatory precaution.
(6) Istihadha, as will be explained later.
 
Ruling 10: Madhi, wadi, and wadhi do not break the wudhu. They have been defined as follows: madhi is that which is discharged during or after foreplay; wadi is what comes out after urinating, and wadhi is that which comes out after semen.
 
Ruling 11: The wudhu is not broken with the coming out of blood, or pus, or the water of enema from the anal passage.
 
Ruling 12: As for the causes of major hadath, which require ghusl or tayammum some are common between men and women, which are janabah, death, and touching of a corpse. And there are those which are specific to women, which are as haydh, nifas, and istihadha.
 
 
The Wudhu (Ablution by Water)
 
 
(a) The Method of Wudhu
 
Ruling 13: It is recommended to use the miswak to clean the teeth all the time and especially before wudhu. It is also recommended to recite ‘bismillah’ when starting wudhu, to recite the narrated supplications during wudhu, to rinse the mouth and nose with water before wudhu thrice, and other acts which are mentioned in detailed books.
 
Ruling 14: It is disliked to seek the help of another person to pour the water for wudhu for the purpose of prayer. It is also disliked to use water which has been heated by the sun.
 
Ruling 15: The face must be washed from the place where the hair of the head grows to the end of the chin in length, and width-wise: the area of the face encompassed by the span of the hand, between the thumb and the middle finger. The obligatory precaution is that the washing be from the top to the bottom.
 
Ruling 16: Each of the two arms must be washed from the elbows to the tips of the fingers, and the elbows must be completely included in the washing, going from top downwards (i.e. elbow to fingers). The right arm must be washed before the left arm.
 
Ruling 17: The top of the head, at the front, must be wiped with the remaining wetness from the previous actions in the wudhu, and based on an obligatory precaution the wiping must be done with the inside of the right hand.
 
Ruling 18: The top of both feet must be wiped from the tips of the toes to the ankle, or vice-versa. As an obligatory precaution, the right feet should be wiped with the right hand, and the left feet should be wiped with the left hand.
 
 
(b) Rulings of Wudhu
 
Ruling 19: Wudhu is obligatory before every compulsory act of worship which is dependent on it, such as the obligatory prayers, and the obligatory tawaf (the circling around the Ka’bah). The recommended prayers are invalid without wudhu.
It is also recommended to perform wudhu with the intention of being in a state of ritual purity.
 
Ruling 20: It is not permissible to touch the verses of the Holy Quran without the state of wudhu; however, it is permissible for him to touch the translation of the Quran.
Based on obligatory precaution, it is not permissible to touch the word “Allah” and His other names in any language without wudhu.
 
Ruling 21: For the wudhu to be valid, the following conditions must be fulfilled:
 
(1) Use of unmixed water, as explained above.
 
(2) Taharah (ritual purity) of the water; so wudhu is not valid with najis water.
 
(3) That the water has not been used in ghusl for the removal of major hadath, if the water used is little, as it will be explained later.
 
(4) The intention, which consists of the objective, and gaining proximity to Allah Almighty. This means that it should not take place in a way which is forbidden, provided that one is aware of it being forbidden.
 
There are a number of cases in which the wudhu can take place in a forbidden way:
    When the water container is gold or silver;
    When performing the wudhu would mean putting oneself in a harm which is unlawful to put oneself in;
   When performing the wudhu would mean usurping of somebody else’s property – by either the water or the water container being usurped, or the place in which it is performed being so;
 
(5) The wudhu is performed directly by oneself, if possible.
 
(6) It is performed in a continuous manner (muwalaat). This means that before performing a particular act of wudhu, the part being previously washed or wiped has not become completely dry in usual circumstances. This condition does not apply in unusual cases, like if the water used was very little or when the air is extremely hot, in which cases the parts may become dry quicker.
 
(7) It is performed in the proper sequence (tartib), that is, the face should be washed first, followed by the right arm, then the left arm, then the wiping of the head and then the wiping of the feet. The right foot should be wiped before the left foot as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 22: If the inside of the hand becomes dry, and one is unable to wipe his head and feet with it, it is sufficient to use the wetness from the beard or the eyebrows.
 
Ruling 23: As an obligatory precaution, the parts of the body in wudhu should be washed a little bit beyond the required limit, to ensure that the whole of the required area has been washed.
 
Ruling 24: Any barrier preventing the water from reaching the skin must be removed, and wudhu is not valid with the presence of such a barrier.
 
Ruling 25: Wiping of the parts which are washed in wudhu is not necessary, but it is sufficient that the water reaches and covers the skin in the manner described above.
 
 
(c) Important Principles
 
There are some basic important principles that can be applied in respect to taharah:
 
(1) One who is certain of hadath, but doubts whether he subsequently ritually purified himself (by wudhu, etc.), he considers himself as not having ritual purity.
 
(2) One who is certain of having taharah and doubts whether he then lost it, he considers himself as having taharah.
 
(3) One who doubts about having taharah during prayer, he must break his prayer, obtain taharah, and then start his prayer again.
 
(4) One who doubts about his taharah after having finished the prayer, he considers it as valid, but he should obtain taharah for any subsequent prayers or acts requiring taharah.
 
(5) If one doubts during the wudhu about a part of it, then he must carry out that part, and continue from there.
 
(6) If one doubts about the correctness of the wudhu after having finished it, he considers it as being valid.
 
 
Taharah with Wound-Dressings
 
 
What is meant by ‘wound-dressings’ here are plaster, pieces of wood and cloth, and the like, which are used to dress the broken bones or to wrap the wounds, and their like, and which form a preventative barrier from washing or wiping the skin underneath.
 
Ruling 26: If it is possible to remove the dressing without harm, and wash or wipe the skin under it as required, then this must be done.
 
Ruling 27: If it is not possible to remove the dressing, due to it being a cause of harm, but it is possible to have the water reach under the dressing, even if by soaking the dressing in water until it penetrates through to the skin, then this must be done. But if it is not possible for the water to reach the skin, then it is sufficient to wash that which is around the dressing to the extent possible, and then wipe over the dressing, as long as it is lawful for him to use and its outer surface is tahir.
 
Ruling 28: If the outer surface of the dressing is najis, and if it is not possible to remove it, change it, or add something to it which would commonly be seen to be a part of it, then wiping its outer surface will not suffice. One should perform the incomplete wudhu, i.e. without wiping on the wound-dressing, and also perform tayammum (ablution by earth) as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 29: In wiping the dressing, it must be done in such a way that all of it would commonly be covered, and being pedantic in the matter is not necessary.
 
Ruling 30: if an exposed wound is in a place which is washed in the wudhu, then it is sufficient to wash around it; and if it is in a place where wiping is done then it must be wiped if that is possible, otherwise something must be placed on the exposed wound and that must be wiped as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 31: The creams and the oils, which the part of the body is coated with for treatment, are wiped upon if possible; otherwise the area around it is washed and tayammum is also performed as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 32:If it is not possible to remove sticky adhesive substance on the skin, which is not used for treatment and which prevents water from reaching the skin, then the obligatory precaution is to perform wudhu wiping over it, along with tayammum.
 
Ruling 33: It is not sufficient to perform wudhu or ghusl in an alternative way due to a valid excuse – like that with wound-dressings, open wounds or the like – when there is plenty of time available, unless one knows that the excuse will continue for the whole of the time, or it is expected to do so. Then if the excuse no longer exists before the end of the time, the taharah must be repeated in its usual manner, as well as the prayer.
 
Ruling 34: Whenever a person doubts about whether his duty is to perform taharah with wound-dressings, or tayammum, he should do both, until his state becomes clear by asking or otherwise.
 
 
Janabah
 
 
Janabah is one of the major hadath – as explained above – which requires ghusl.
 
Ruling 35: A person enters the state of janabah by one of two ways:
 
(1)    For a man, the ejaculation of semen, even if it is without sexual intercourse. As an obligatory precaution, a woman also enters the state of janabah with ejaculation – as a result of which she has to perform both ghusl and wudhu as an obligatory precaution.
(2)    Sexual intercourse, even if it does not result in ejaculation. This refers to the entrance of at least the head of the male sexual organ into the vaginal passage. This results in both partners entering the state of janabah. As an obligatory precaution, they both also enter the state of janabah if the head of the male sexual organ enters the anal passage.
 
Ruling 36: All of those things which cannot be performed validly without wudhu also cannot be performed validly by a person in janabah.
 
Ruling 37: The fasting of a person who knows that he is in the state of janabah is not valid.
 
Ruling 38: The following things are prohibited for a person in janabah:
(1)    Whatever is forbidden for the one without wudhu is also forbidden for the person in janabah.
(2)    It is forbidden for person in the state of janabah to be in Masjid al-Haraam (in Makkah) or Masjid al-Nabi (in Madinah), even if he is just passing through.
(3)    It is forbidden for a person in janabah to stay in any mosque, and as an obligatory precaution the same is also the case with the holy shrines of the Infallibles (peace be upon them all). However, it is permissible to pass through them by entering through a door and exiting through another.
(4)   It is forbidden for a person in janabah to recite the verses of prostration from the four chapters of the Quran: (i) Alif-Lam-Meem al-Sajdah, (ii) Ha-Meem al-Sajdah, (iii) Al-Najm, and (iv) Al-Alaq.
 
 
The Ghusl (Ritual Bathing)
 
 
The ghusl (ritual bath) is required to cleanse oneself from major hadaths like janabah.
 
Ruling 39: It is obligatory in ghusl to make the intention, perform it directly oneself, to make the water reach the skin, and that the water is tahir, unmixed and lawful to use; the details of some of these matter have been explained above in the chapter of wudhu.
 
Ruling 40: The water must reach all parts of the body, even if the water used was little. This can be done in one of two ways:
 
(1)    The immersion manner, by immersing the whole body at once into water.
(2)    The sequential manner, beginning the washing with the head first, then the rest of the body. The washing of the head should start before the washing of the body; similarly, one should complete the washing of the head before the body is washed entirely. It is best to wash the entire head and neck first, then all of the right side of the body, and then all of the left side.
 
Ruling 41: The ghusl of janabah suffices for wudhu, as does every ghusl which has been established in the Sharia – whether obligatory or recommended, like the Friday ghusl, as will be mentioned later.
 
Ruling 42: If a number of different ghusls are to be performed, a single ghusl suffices with the intention for all of them, or with the intention of at least one of them – such as ghusl for janabah.
 
Ruling 43: Continuity (muwalaat) is not a condition for ghusl; so it is valid to wash the head first, for instance, and after some time, the rest of the body is washed.
 
Ruling 44: If a minor hadath occurs during the ghusl, he may complete the ghusl, but it is preferable to start the ghusl again. In both cases (whether he repeats the ghusl or not) he must perform wudhu after it to attain taharah.
 
Ruling 45: If one doubts about being in janabah or not, he is considered as not being in janabah. If one has certainty of having been in janabah but doubts about having performed the ghusl or not, he will consider himself to still be in janabah. This is so, unless the source of the doubt is obsessive doubting (waswas), in which case he does not pay attention to it and considers himself as having performed the ghusl.
 
Ruling 46: It is recommended for a man to do istibra from semen (i.e. empty his urethra from semen) by urinating, before the ghusl of janabah.
Its benefit is that any liquid, about which one doubts whether it is semen or not, which comes out after this is not considered as semen by the Sharia; however, if such liquid is discharged before urinating it will be regarded as semen.
 
 
Haydh (Menstruation)
 
 
Haydh is another cause of hadath, ,and it requires ghusl after it has ended for the woman to ritually purify herself. Haydh refers to the habitual menstrual blood which a woman sees when her womb discharges it, after the completion of 9 lunar years and before the age of 60 lunar years for the descendent of Quraysh and 50 years for others. However, if it is known that the bleeding is that of haydh before the age of nine or after the aforementioned ages, it will be regarded as so. It is commonly red, dark, warm and it comes out with pressure and irritation.
 
Ruling 47: Haydh lasts for a minimum period of three days, even if they are spaced out within ten days; and its maximum is ten days.
 
Ruling 48: Women are divided into three categories in respect to their haydh:
 
(1)   The one having a habit of time and duration: She is the one whose haydh starts at a specific time and continues for a specific number of days.
(2)   The one having a habit of time only: She is the one whose haydh starts at a specific time, but without any specification for it in terms of duration and continuity.
(3)   The one having a habit of duration only: She is the one who sees the blood for a specific length of time without any specification of the time in which it starts.
 
Ruling 49: A woman becomes one having a habit (as explained above) when her blood coincides in time, duration, or both, for two consecutive months. Her habit stays the same until she sees a different habit for another two consecutive months.
 
Ruling 50: It is possible that haydh and pregnancy be combined, even after the pregnancy has become known. Then if a woman has a habit of time, she takes the beginning of haydh as soon as she sees blood, if it corresponds to the beginning of her habit or precedes it by a day or two.
Similarly, she considers the blood as haydh if it is discharged after the end of her normal habit, as long as twenty days have not passed from the start of the habitual time, with the condition that it is red. However, if it is yellow, then the obligatory precaution is to combine between the rulings of haydh and istihadha, i.e. she should avoid the prohibitions of haydh and perform the obligations of istihadha. If she does not have a habit, then she should consider her haydh to begin when she sees red blood, not yellow blood.
The condition of the haydh being of a minimum of three days does not apply to the pregnant woman, so her haydh can be for a duration of a day or two.
 
Ruling 51: If the blood apparently stops coming out but it is probable that it is still present internally, she should examine herself by entering cotton inside the vaginal passage. If it comes out stained in blood she remains in haydh, and if not then her haydh has ended. However, if the blood stops at night and there is a possibility of it remaining, it is not obligatory to examine, and she can consider the haydh to be continuing and delay the examination until the daytime.
 
Ruling 52: Most of the rules which apply to the one in janabah also apply to the one in haydh. Rather, as an obligatory precaution, they share all the rules.
 
Ruling 53: It is forbidden to have sexual vaginal intercourse with the woman in haydh; and as an obligatory precaution one should refrain from anal intercourse with her, even with her consent. Without her consent, it is forbidden. Sexual pleasure with her by any other way is allowed.
 
Ruling 54: The woman in haydh must make up for any fasts missed in the month of Ramadhan, but she is not required to make for any missed prayers, if the haydh duration encompassed the entire time of the prayer – except in the case of the Dhuhr (noon) prayer for which it is not obligatory to make up for it after its preferred time has passed.
 
Ruling 55: The ghusl of haydh is like the ghusl of janabah, except that it is recommended to perform wudhu before it.
 
 
Istihadha
 
 
Any blood not ruled as being haydh or nifas, and which is discharged from the womb, is called istihadha.
 
Ruling 56: Istihadha has three levels, each with their own rulings, as follows:
 
(1) Minor: This is when the blood stains the cotton placed in the vaginal passage, but without penetrating into it to the other side of the cotton.
Ruling: Wudhu must be performed for every prayer – obligatory or recommended – and the prayer must be performed immediately after the wudhu.
 
(2) Medium: This is when the blood penetrates the cotton and appears on the other side, but does not flow from it.
Ruling: One ghusl must be performed for the day; it should be performed for the next prayer before after this level of istihadha is determined. After ghusl, wudhu is not required for those prayers offered together immediately afterwards, and wudhu will be necessary for those prayers not offered immediately after the ghusl.
 
(3) Major: This is when the blood penetrates the cotton and flows from it, but the obligatory precaution is that it is sufficient for the discharge to be considered as major istihadha if the blood flows out due to not placing the cotton there.
Ruling: One must to perform three ghusls daily: one for Fajr prayer, one for Dhuhr and Asr prayers (adjoining them both together), and one for Maghrib and Isha prayers (also adjoining them both together).
 
Ruling 57: It is upon the woman to ensure that her discharging blood does not make the body or clothing najis during the prayer, by placing a pad or the like.
 
Ruling 58: It is not necessary to change the cotton for every prayer, but it is better to do so.
 
Ruling 59: The prayer of precaution, the making up of forgotten parts of prayer, and the prostrations of forgetfulness – see the chapter of Prayers for details – are sufficed by the wudhu of the original prayer which they follow, as long as there is no gap as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 60: If there is a period of time when the woman knows that the bleeding will stop, and that it will be sufficient for obtaining taharah and performing the prayer, then she must wait for that period of time and perform the prayer during it. Such is also the case if she falls short of certain knowledge, but is quite confident. As an obligatory precaution, this is also the case even if she is merely expecting there to be such a time period.
 
Ruling 61: The tawaf of the one in istihadha is correct if she acts according to her established duties.
 
Ruling 62: The fast of the one in istihadha is correct, even if she fails to abide by her established duties.
 
Ruling 63: The ghusl of istihadha is like the ghusl of janabah and haydh in its method and rules.
 
Ruling 64: A woman in the state of istihadha is required to examine for any changes in the levels of her istihadha before she offers her prayers, as an obligatory precaution. However, if she did not do so, and she learns later that she did not act according to the level of her istihadha, she must repeat the prayers.
 
 
Nifas (Lochia Bleeding)
 
 
Nifas is that blood which the womb discharges during giving birth or after it, and its minimum is a mere moment, and its duration is measured from the time the birth is complete. It causes ritual impurity which requires ghusl for purification once it has ended.
 
Ruling 65: If the blood of nifas continues for more than ten days after the birth, and she had a habit of time in her haydh, then her nifas is to the extent of her habit. If the bleeding continues after this, as an obligatory precaution she should consider herself to be in nifas for a further day at the very least. She may continue to do so until the completion of the ten days.
 
Ruling 66: The one who does not have a habit of time should consider all of the ten days as nifas. If it continues after this, then she should act according to the obligations of the one in istihadha while abandoning all those acts which are forbidden for one in nifas, until the completion of eighteen days, as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 67: If the blood of nifas stops appearing, she must place cotton inside the vaginal passage to see if there is still blood remaining inside.
 
Ruling 68: Most of the rules of the haydh apply to the one in nifas; rather all of them apply to her based on an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 69: Ghusl must be performed after the nifas has ended, in the same manner as the ghusl for janabah and haydh.
 
 
Rules Related to the Deceased
 
 
It is obligatory for a person who is feeling death approach, or who is witnessing its direct signs, to fulfil his duties, monetary or otherwise, to fulfil what is due to other people and to make a will for that which he cannot carry out, to admit and testify to that which is on his shoulders in terms of debts, and what possessions he is holding in trust for other people, and to hasten in asking for forgiveness and repentance from the sins.
 
Ruling 70: It is recommended to make the dying person face the qibla such that the soles of his feet are facing the qibla, so if he were to sit he would be facing it with his face. And it is obligatory to make him face the qibla after his death.
 
Ruling 71: It is recommended for the dying person and others to give witness to the attestations of Islam (bearing witness to Allah and the Holy Prophet), the guardianship of the Imams (peace be upon them all), and the other true beliefs; it is recommended recommended for the dying person to declare this in the presence of others, and for others to dictate it to him.
 
Ruling 72: It is recommended after death to hasten in closing the eyes of the deceased, fastening his chin, and it is said to close the mouth, extend the hands and legs, and to cover him with a cloak.
 
Ruling 73: It is obligatory by kifayah – i.e. it is obligatory in the beginning on all duty-bound persons, but the obligation is dropped from others by its fulfilment by one or some – to prepare the dead body of the believer for burial.
 
Ruling 74: The burial preparations (such as the bathing and shrouding) must be done with the permission of the guardian of the dead person – which is the inheritor – and the husband has precedence with respect to his deceased wife over anyone else. With the absence of any guardian or lack of access to him, anyone is free to carry it out. .
 
Ruling 75: The obligatory precaution is to act upon both the permission of the guardian of the deceased and the will of the deceased, if he wills that someone other than the guardian takes charge of his affairs, or that he is to be washed with specific water for example, and other such things. If this necessitates the spending of money then it is considered as part of the will.
 
Ruling 76: The obligation of bearing the costs of the wife’s obligatory funeral rites is on the husband, and anything other than that is taken from her wealth that she left behind, before the paying of debts and executing the will, and it is possible for anybody to voluntarily undertake it.
 
(a) Ghusl of the Deceased’s Body
 
Ruling 77: The ghusl for the dead body is like that of janabah in its manner and conditions, except that it is necessary to make the body tahir before giving it the ghusl if it has become subjected to an external najasah as an obligatory precaution. It differs from it in two further matters:
 
(1) The water must be abundant and much in quantity. A little amount of water is not sufficient.
 
(2) Three ghusls are given, the first one by sidr water, then by camphor water, and then by unmixed pure water.
 
Ruling 78: The ghusl must have the intention in the manner mentioned previously in the section on wudhu; thus it is not correct if the motive is the taking of payment or being conditional upon it; rather, the obligatory precaution is to not take payment for it even if it is not the motive for doing it. And if something is wished to be given to him, it should be purely a gift, not preceded by any condition or agreement.
 
Ruling 79: If sidr or camphor is not available, ghusl is done with the pure unmixed water in place of the thing not available, and as an obligatory precaution it should be intended that this is done as a substitute for the ghusl with the missing sidr or camphor.
 
Ruling 80: The amount of sidr required is that by which the cleaning of the body can be achieved, and the amount of camphor required is that by which the scenting of the body can be attained.
 
Ruling 81: If the water does not suffice for three ghusls, then the ghusl with unmixed water is given preference. If there is a sufficient amount of water for a second ghusl, one has a choice between sidr and camphor water, and tayammum must also be undertaken based on an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 82: In a situation of absence of water or fear of the body dispersing if washed due to being burnt or any other reason, tayammum must be performed on the body. One tayammum suffices and it must be done with the hand of the deceased if possible; otherwise, the striking and wiping will be sufficient by the hand of the person making the deceased do tayammum.
 
Ruling 83: The corpse and the person giving it the ghusl should be of the same gender, except if the age of the deceased does not exceed three years, or if it is a wife in which case the husband may wash her. Likewise it is permitted for the mahram relatives, be they by blood, or due to wet nursing, or due to marriage – to wash the deceased of the opposite gender, if there is nobody who is of the same gender available. And it is forbidden in all conditions to look at the private parts except in the case of husband and wife; rather, even in that case it is forbidden as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 84: It is forbidden to cut the nails of the corpse or to cut its hair, and the obligatory precaution is to abstain from cleaning under the nails except that much which is needed for the water to reach the surface of the skin. Similarly it is not allowed to comb or arrange its hair, if there is the possibility of some hair falling off due to this. If anything detaches from it due to any other cause, it must be buried with the corpse.
 
(b) Takfin and Tahnit
 
Ruling 85: It is obligatory to perform the tahnit (the application of camphor) of the body after washing it, and before completing the takfin (shrouding the body with the kafan), by rubbing with camphor the seven places of prostration on his body – the forehead, both palms, both knees and the large toes of both feet – in such a way that something of it remains on them.
 
Ruling 86: Takfin of the body is obligatory – except for the martyr, the rules of which are mentioned in detailed books – with three cloths hiding from view his body; rather, each one of them should be such that it hides from view that which is under it, as an obligatory precaution. And these three are:
 
(1)  The qamis: this must cover the body between the shoulders and the knees, as an obligatory precaution.
 
(2) The izar: this must cover the whole body except the head.
 
(3) The rida: this must cover the whole body including the head.
 
Ruling 87: Takfin is not permitted with silk, nor with that which has not been woven, such as leather, as an obligatory precaution, except in the case of not having anything else.
 
Ruling 88: The kafan must be tahir, so if it becomes najis after the takfin then it must be made tahir, or the place of the najasah should be clipped or cut out. The latter is permissible only if it does not lead to revealing the body based on an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 89: One must be allowed by the Sharia to use the kafan, and it is forbidden to do takfin with something which is usurped, even in the case of not having anything else.
 
(c) The Prayer on the Deceased
 
Ruling 90: Offering the prayer on the deceased Muslim who has reached the Sharia-based adulthood is obligatory, as long as it is not known that he has denied and rejected the Imamate of the Imams (peace be upon them), and it is recommended to offer the prayer on the deceased child if he used to apprehend and understand the prayer. If the deceased is younger than this, prayer on him is not legislated in the Sharia.
 
Ruling 91: The prayer on the deceased consists of five takbirs (the phrase, ‘Allahu Akbar’), with supplication and dhikr in between them, and it is ended with the fifth takbir.
 
Ruling 92: It is obligatory to supplicate for the adult deceased if he was a believer, and it suffices to supplicate for his parents and the believers if he was a child and the parents were worthy of this. As an obligatory precaution one should also recite the salawat (invocation of blessings) for the Prophet and his progeny (peace be upon them all).
The best way to perform the prayer is that one recites the first takbir followed by the two testimonies of faith (in Allah and the Prophet); then the second takbir followed by the salawat on the Prophet and his holy progeny (peace be upon them all); then the third takbir followed by supplication for the believing men and women; then the fourth takbir followed by supplication for the deceased, if he was an adult believer; finally, one will recite the fifth takbir and the prayer will be completed.
 
Ruling 93: For the validity of the prayer, it is necessary to observe the following:
 
(1) The intention.
 
(2) The permission of the guardian
 
(3) The presence of the body.
 
(4) One should stand behind the body.
 
(5) One should be close to it.
 
(6) One should offer the prayer standing if possible.
 
(7) One should face qibla, such that the body is lying on its back with the head of the body to ones right.
 
(8) The prayer should be performed after the ghusl, the tahnit and the takfin, and before the burial.
As an obligatory precaution, there should be continuity between the takbirs and the supplications.
 
Ruling 94:It is not necessary for one who is offering the prayer on the deceased to be in taharah from hadath or najasah, and it is recommended for the prayer to be offered in congregation, and the adalah of the imam is not necessary.
 
(d) The Burial
 
Ruling 95:It is obligatory to bury the body by concealing it inside the earth in such a way that the body is protected from the predatory animals and the like, and that the smell is prevented from coming to the surface.
 
Ruling 96:It is obligatory to place the body in his grave lying on his right side, with his face facing the qibla.
 
Ruling 97:It is forbidden to bury a believer in a place which results in insult to his honour such as a dumping ground, or in a place which is waqf for something specific not including burying the dead, or in someone else’s property without his permission, or in a place subjected to the right of someone else without his permission.
 
Ruling 98:It is forbidden to bury a person in another body’s grave, except if the grave is not designated exclusively for the first body, or the first body has been removed from it and transferred, or the body has disintegrated and decayed and the place is no longer regarded as being a grave for it.
 
Ruling 99: It is forbidden to exhume the grave of the deceased in such a way that his body is exposed, if that will be insulting towards him by the smell and the changing of his physical appearance. As an obligatory precaution one should not exhume the grave after the burial even without such an insult. The following cases are excluded:
 
(1) If he was buried without ghusl, tahnit or takfin, or with them but not in the correct way ordained by the Sharia, as long as exhuming the grave will not be insulting to him, such as if he was buried recently. So if a long time has passed and his physical appearance has changed then it is not permissible to exhume the grave to carry out the ghusl and takfin.
 
(2) If the exhuming of the grave is in the interest of the deceased and will not lead to him being insulted, such as in order to transfer the deceased to one of the holy sites or to a family cemetery, so that it will be an esteem for the deceased or cause the people to remember him and pray for him more, for example.
 
(3) If in exhuming the grave there is the remedy of a forbidden offence, such as if he has been buried in the property of someone else without his permission, or someone else’s property has been buried with him wrongly, and the like. Consideration should be made to ensure he is not insulted by the spread of his smell and the like, wherever possible.
 
(e) The Ghusl of Touching the Corpse
 
Ruling 100: Ghusl is obligatory for touching a dead body after the whole body has become cold and before it has been given ghusl. This ghusl is like that for janabah with respect to its manner, and it suffices for wudhu. The one who is obligated to perform the ghusl for touching the corpse is not allowed to do those things which require taharah, such as prayer, touching the writing of the Quran; but those prohibitions specific to the one in the state of janabah are not forbidden for him, such as entering the mosque and reading the four chapters of the Quran which consist of a verse which obligates prostration (as mentioned above).
 
Ruling 101: Just as ghusl is obligatory for touching a corpse, it is also obligatory for touching a part of body separated from a living or dead person, if it consists of meat and bone.
 
 
The Recommended Ghusls
 
The recommended ghusls are many, among them are the following:
 
(a) Those which are related to a time:
 
These include the Friday ghusl, which is one of the emphasized recommended deeds. Its prescribed time is from the beginning of dawn until Dhuhr time, and it can be made up (as qadha) after that until the sunset of Friday; and if it was not done by this time, it can be made up on Saturday during daytime.
 
Also recommended are the ghusls of the two Eids, and the day of Tarwiyah (the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah), and the day of Arafat (the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah); and the time for all of them is from the beginning of dawn until sunset. Similarly, the ghusl of the first night of the month of Ramadhan is also recommended, as well as the seventeenth, nineteenth, twenty-first and twenty third nights of the same month.
 
(b) Those which are related to a place:
These include the ghusls for entering the haram (sacred precincts) of Makkah and Madinah, and for entering the two cities themselves, if it is for carrying out an obligatory or recommended worship. It is also recommended for entering the mosque of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his holy progeny) in Madinah, and for entering the Noble Ka’bah.
 
(c) That which is related to an action:
These include the ghusls for ihram, for staying at Arafat just after Dhuhr, for slaughtering the sacrifice during hajj, for shaving of the hair during hajj, for the obligatory tawaf of hajj after returning from Mina; similarly, it is recommended for touching the corpse after having given it ghusl, and the ghusl for making up the lapsed total lunar eclipse prayer, with negligence in performing it on time.
 
Ruling 102: All of these ghusls suffice for wudhu. However, those ghusls which have not been proven to be part of the Sharia can be offered with the hope of being rewarded, and they do not suffice for wudhu.
 
 
Tayammum (Ablution by Earth)
 
 
Ruling 103: A person can perform tayammum instead of ghusl or wudhu in the following cases:
 
(1) There not being sufficient water for the minimum required in wudhu or ghusl, whether he caused the lack of water or not. The person must search for water until he knows or is satisfied of its absence. It is sufficient for the traveler in the desert or wilderness to search for water, on level earth, to a distance of two arrow shots in all directions in which there is possibility of finding it, and in the uneven earth one arrow shot; an arrow shot refers to a common average arrow shot.
 
(2) Fear of thirst if the water with him is used for wudhu or ghusl, regardless of whether the fear is for himself or for one who is under his care, including his animals, or if he fears for the loss of a life which is obligatory for him to protect.
 
(3) Fear of bodily harm by using the water, due to this causing illness or causing it to become more severe or slowing down its healing.
 
(4) If it is necessary to use the water for another obligatory act, such as purifying a mosque, or the body, or clothing from najasah.
 
(5) If using the water will necessitate something prohibited in the Sharia, such as using somebody else’s property, or something which causes hardship in bearing it, such as aggression of a wrongdoer and its like.
 
(6) If he has not found water and the time for obtaining it by purchasing, or by asking for it, or striving for it has become constrained. If he has water but the time for prayer has become constrained for performing wudhu or ghusl, then tayammum will not suffice. However, it is preferable that he hastens to pray with tayammum, and then repeats it after the time has passed as qadha, after the ghusl or wudhu.
 
Ruling 104: Tayammum is valid with whatever is called earth, from soil, or sand, or rock, or stone, and it is necessary for whatever is used to be lawful to use and tahir. If one is unable to use any of them, tayammum is done with dust, and if that is also not possible then with mud – but the obligatory precaution is that it is removed from the hand by rubbing and the like, before wiping with them. This is in the case of not being able to dry the mud beforehand; otherwise, it must be dried and then tayammum performed with it, before resorting to using dust.
 
Ruling 105: Tayammum should be performed in the following method:
 
(1) One should first strike the inside of his hands on the earth once.
 
(2) He should wipe, with both of his hands together, his forehead, and the two sides of his face from the place where the hair grows to the bone of the eyebrows.
 
(3) He should wipe the back of the right hand from the wrist to the fingertips, with the inside of the left hand. Then he similarly wipes the back of the left hand with the inside of the right hand. It is best that he strikes the earth for a second time and then repeats the wiping of the two hands.
 
Ruling 106: The following conditions must be fulfilled for the tayammum to be valid:
 
(1) Forming the intention.
 
(2) Carrying out the acts by oneself, if possible.
 
(3) Following the sequence in the correct order.
 
(4) Continuity, even if the tayammum is in place of ghusl, as an obligatory precaution.
 
(5) The parts of the body on which tayammum is done being tahir, if the najasah would result in the najasah of the earth of tayammum via transferring moisture; but as an obligatory precaution it should be tahir in all cases, except in the case of being unable to make it tahir, in which case tayammum is permissible if the parts are dry.
 
Ruling 107: Tayammum for prayer is invalid before its prescribed time, as an obligatory precaution, except if he knows or fears not being able to perform the tayammum after the setting in of the time.
 
Ruling 108: Prayer with tayammum is not valid when there is time left for the prayer, except if it is probable that the cause for tayammum will continue till the end of the prescribed time. As such, if one does perform the tayammum and its cause does indeed continue, the tayammum will suffice; otherwise, the prayer must be repeated with wudhu or ghusl.
 
Ruling 109: Excluded from the previous ruling is the one whose cause for tayammum is not having water, because if he does not know and does not think that he will have access to water during the time of the prayer, he can hasten to pray with tayammum and that will suffice even if he finds water later within the time of the prayer, indeed, even if he finds it during the prayer after the first bowing (ruku’). However, if he finds it before the first bowing, he must break the prayer, then perform the wudhu or ghusl with the water, and start the prayer again.
 
Ruling 110: The tayammum can be performed in place of the wudhu in all the situations where wudhu is legislated.
 
Ruling 111: The tayammum can be performed as a substitute for obligatory ghusls, like janabah, haydh or nifas for the purpose of performing obligatory and recommended prayers. As an obligatory precaution, tayammum has not been legislated in the Sharia as a substitute for ghusls which are recommended.
 
Ruling 112: One who performs tayammum for a particular purpose, that will suffice him for another purpose which also requires taharah; for example, if one performs tayammum for prayers he can also enter the mosques with the same tayammum.
 
Ruling 113: The tayammum is not nullified except by two things: having access to water, or hadith.
 
Ruling 114: One who performs tayammum for taharah from major hadith, and then minor hadith occurs for him, his first tayammum is not nullified, and wudhu or tayammum for purity from the minor hadith is required from him.
 
 
The Najasah
 
 
The najasah is the material ritual impurity as defined by the Sharia. It is found in ten things. These ten najis things are as follows:
 
(1) and (2) Urine and faeces of the human being and of every animal whose meat is unlawful to eat and its blood spurts when it is slaughtered. This excludes the urine and faeces of birds, even if the bird is unlawful to eat like a crow.
 
(3) Semen of the human being and of every animal whose meat is unlawful to eat and its blood spurts when it is slaughtered.
 
(4) Blood of the human being and of every animal which has spurting blood.
 
Ruling 115: The blood remaining in the body of an animal after slaughtering, and after the exiting of the usual amount of blood, is ruled to be tahir; similarly, the blood present in the egg is tahir– but the obligatory precaution is that it is not permissible to eat it.
 
(5) The corpse of animals which have spurting blood; and the same is the case for the part cut off from such an animal while it’s alive, other than scales, warts and the like.
 
Ruling 116: What is meant by the corpse of animals here is every dead body not slaughtered in the Sharia-prescribed manner. If there is doubt about it having been slaughtered in the Sharia-prescribed manner or not, it is ruled as not having been done so, and all the parts of it which are life-containing, such as skin, fat, meat, etc. are ruled to be najis.
 
Ruling 117: If a human dies, his body will become najis, and the ruling of the animal corpse will apply on it, until it is given the three ghusls, as will be explained later.
 
(6) and (7) the dog and the pig, with all their parts, even those which do not contain life such as fur and the like.
 
(8) The non-Muslim, based on an obligatory precaution, other than the People of the Book, who are the Jews, Christians, and Magians. The people of the book are tahir in themselves, and they will be considered tahirif it is not known that they have become najis due to contact with wine, pork, etc.
 
(9) Wine and every intoxicant which is originally liquid. This includes beer; but as for other alcohols, their being najisis dependent on them being intoxicating and being originally liquid.
 
(10) The sweat of a camel which eats the faeces of humans – rather, that of every animal who eats that, as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 118: As for the sweat of the person who has entered the state of janabah in an unlawful manner, although it is tahir, it is not permissible to perform prayers in it based on an obligatory precaution.
 
(a) How Najasah is Transferred
 
Ruling 119: A tahir object becomes najis by coming into contact with an impurity, if one of the two objects contains transferring moisture, i.e. it transfers simply with contact. Thetahir part which has made contact with the impurity becomes najis.
 
Ruling 120: The thing made najis by an impurity also makes najis another object which touches it with moisture between them, and so on, whatever the number of consecutive objects become najis.
 
Ruling 121: The najis urine, faeces, blood and semen as mentioned above are not ruled to be najis except if they leave the body, thus anything which touches them inside the body does not become najis. For example, the syringe does not become najis with the contact with blood inside the body as long as the blood does not come out with the syringe.
 
Ruling 122: If there is a doubt about whether something is najis, it is regarded as being tahir.
 
Ruling 123: It is necessary for the validity of the prayer – except the prayer on the deceased – and also for the making up (qadha) of its forgotten parts and, as an obligatory precaution, for the prostrations of forgetfulness too, that the body of the one praying is tahir as well as his clothes, even if a clothing is not such that would be sufficient to cover the private parts.
 
Ruling 124: Whatever is prostrated upon must be tahir to the extent of the minimum area of the forehead required for prostration, and there is no problem with any other part of the place upon which one is praying being najis, as long as the najasah does not spread to the body or clothes.
 
Ruling 125: One who prays unknowingly with najasah, his prayer is valid, except if the blood is that of haydh, in which case the obligatory precaution will be to repeat it.
 
Ruling 126: If one knew about the najasah and then forgot about it and prayed, his prayer is invalid and he must repeat the prayer, whether he is within time or the time has lapsed.
 
This also applies to the najis things that are carried by him, provided that it is not exempted, based on an obligatory precaution. The exemptions will be mentioned in Ruling 130.
 
Ruling 127: If one began the prayer and his body or clothes were najis without knowing it, then he came to know about it during the prayer, it becomes void and he must repeat the prayer after purification.
 
Ruling 128: If a person knew that his clothing or body is najis, and he made it tahir and prayed, and then, after finishing the prayer, realizes that there is still najasah remaining, he does not have to repeat the prayer. However, if he relied on somebody else to make it tahir for him and he did not examine it, and the purification of the najasah is something requiring extra care in cleaning, such as semen, then he should repeat his prayer as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 129: It is not necessary for a person to inform others of their body or clothing being najis.
 
Ruling 130: Najasah is excused in prayer in some cases, such as the following:
 
(1) Blood of wounds or sores which is present on the body or clothing until the bleeding stops due to healing.
 
(2) Blood on clothing in the amount which is less than a dirham in size – and what is meant by a dirham is an area equivalent to that of a circle whose diameter is 2.3cm as an obligatory precaution – provided that it is not mixed with anything else, and that it is not the blood of haydh or that of an animal whose meat is not permissible to eat; and the obligatory precaution is that it is not the blood of nifas, or the blood of an animal that is najis itself (i.e. the dog and pig), or that of a corpse.
 
(3) Those items which, if worn, do not suffice to cover the minimal part of the body required to be covered for the validity of prayer, i.e. the private parts of a man, such as a sock, a small handkerchief or a ring, provided that it is not itself an original najasah, such as a corpse, nor does it consist of a part of an animal whose meat is not permissible to eat, even if it is something carried on one’s person, such as a leather wallet, based on an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 131: It is forbidden to eat or drink an originally najis thing or something which has become najis
.
Ruling 132: It is forbidden to make the mosque najis and that which is associated with it, such as the flooring; and it is obligatory on a person to immediately make it tahirif it would be considered an insult to it, and even if not considered an insult as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 133: It is forbidden to make najis the Quran and the holy shrines, and it is obligatory to purify it if its remaining najis will be an insult to it. This also applies to everything which has sacredness by being related to something sacred, such as the covering of the Ka’bah and the earth of the grave of Imam Hussain (peace be upon him), taken for blessing.
 
(b) Purification from Najasah
 
The purifying agents are eleven in number:
 
(1) Tahir water:This is classified into two types: immune (mu’tasim) and little. Immune water is categorized into three types:
 
(a) water that has reached the amount of kurr– approximately 464 kg, and it is better to consider it as 470 kg;
 
(b) water that which has a source, such as spring water, well water, and tap water which is connected to a large tank or mains water supply;
 
(c) rain water during rainfall;
 
Little water is that which does not reach the amount of kurr, nor does it have such a source as mentioned above.
 
Ruling 134: Immune water does not become najis by contacting something najis, except if the colour, taste or smell of the water changes due to the najasah. As for little water, it will become najis simply by contacting najasah, whether its colour, taste or smell changes due to it or not.
 
Ruling 135: Unmixed water purifies everything it reaches and encompasses which has become najis, provided that the water is tahir itself, and that the original najasah (e.g. the blood or urine) has been removed as per the conventional view. If the water is little, then the following two conditions will also apply:
 
(1) The separation of the water used for purification from the object.
 
(2) The water must be poured over the najis object; so the purification will not occur if, for example, a najis ring is placed in a water container.
 
Ruling 136: If the purification is being done by immune water, such as kurr water, then it is sufficient that the water covers the body which has become najis once.
 
Ruling 137: If the purification is being done by little water, then washing once will suffice, except in certain cases:
 
(1) If the cause of najasah is urine, so the washing must be done twice, with a gap in between the two washings.
 
(2) If a utensil has become najis, so the water will be placed in it and emptied out of it, three times. But if it is possible to make the utensil tahir without the water collecting in it, like a basin or sink, then it suffices to wash it once.
 
(3) If a pig drinks from a utensil, so it is purified by washing it with water seven times. This also applies to the case of a rat dying in it as an obligatory precaution.
 
(4) If a dog drinks from a utensil, so it is purified by washing it with water mixed with tahir earth once, and then washing it twice with little water. As an obligatory precaution, if the dog has licked it with its tongue or its saliva has fallen in it, it should be washed for a third time with little unmixed water.
 
If the water used is immune, the first washing with water mixed with earth is still required, but it is sufficient to wash it once with unmixed water afterwards.
 
(2) Dry earth: This makes tahir the bottom of the feet and also whatever is worn on one’s feet, such as shoes.Taharah is achieved by walking on it, provided that the original najasah is removed and that it had become najis due to walking on the earth; as an obligatory precaution, such earth should be tahir itself.
 
(3) The Sun: This purifies the earth and whatever is fixed upon it such as buildings, trees, and plantations, provided that the place is wet and is then dried by the sun, and that the original najasah which has a visible body, such as faeces and blood, are removed.
 
(4) Changing (Istihala) into another substance, such as the changing of wood into ashes and water into steam.
 
(5) Transformation (Inqilab): This purifies wine if it turns into vinegar or another non-intoxicating thing which is not called wine, provided that it does not meet another najasah.
 
(6) Transfer: This purifies a najasah that has been transferred, such as transfer of najis blood to the bedbug, mosquito, lice and the like. When the blood is conventionally regarded as being that of the latter, it will become tahir.
 
(7) Islam: If a disbeliever, who was, along with his sweat and the like, ruled to be najis, accepts Islam he will become tahir, even if he was an apostate.
 
(8) Succession: This means that if something has become tahir, something else will follow it in becoming tahir.
 
Ruling 138: Taharah by succession occurs in a number of instances:
 
(1) If wine becomes tahir by changing into vinegar, the container in which it is in also becomes tahir.
 
(2) If the clothes are washed by little water and made tahir, the utensil in which they are washed will also become tahir when it is emptied of the water used in the washing.
 
(3) When the deceased is given the ghusl, the hand used in washing the body as well as all other equipment used in doing so will become tahir when the three ghusls are completed. The same applies to the clothing in which he has been washed, if it has been squeezed.
 
(9) Absolution (Istibra) of the animal that eats human excrement: This makes its urine, faeces, and sweat tahir. This is done by not allowing the animal to consume human excrement for a number of days, depending on the type of animal.
 
(10) Giving ghusl to the dead body: This makes it tahir after it became najis due to death. This only applies to when the completed ghusls are given, as opposed to the ghusl which is incomplete out of necessity (e.g. due to lack of sidr or camphor) or if tayammum is given instead.
 
(11) The stone used to clean the anus after defecation: This purifies the anal exit from where the bowels are evacuated if the najasah is removed with it.
 
Ruling 139: If a person knew that an object is najis, and then doubted whether it had become tahir or not, it is taken as remaining najis.
 
Ruling 140: If a person knew that an object was washed in order to make it tahir, but then doubted about whether the washing was correct or not, he will take it as having been correct.
 
Ruling 141: If one knew about the najasah of the body of a Muslim, or his clothing, utensil, or the like, and he left him for some time, he takes it as being made tahir, provided that;
 
(1) it was possible for the Muslim to have made it tahir,
 
(2) the Muslim knew about the najasah.
 
(3) he is dealing with it as he deals with a tahir thing, like if he wears it during prayers, or he eats or drinks it.
 
Ruling 142: It is forbidden to use utensils of gold and silver in eating and drinking and for other purposes, even if the gold and silver is not completely pure. It is not forbidden to use them for decoration or to acquire them for saving.
 
Ruling 143: It is permissible to use a utensil consisting of some gold or silver, provided that the side with the gold or silver on it is not drunk from, as an obligatory precaution.
 
Ruling 144: If the body of an animal comes into contact with a najasah, like blood or urine, and then the najasah disappears from the body, it will be treated as a tahir body, and it is not necessary to make tahir the part of the body which contacted the najasah. For example, if the beak of a bird becomes najis with blood and the blood disappeared later, the beak will be treated as tahir.

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