FOOD AND DRINK
Animals which are Originally Forbidden to Consume
Ruling 766: Sea animals are unlawful to consume except those which have removable scales or shells, such as the scales of fish and the shells of shrimp. If it is doubted, then it is regarded as unlawful.
Ruling 767: All land animals which have fangs or are predatory animals – those which prey on other animals and eat them, even if they do not have fangs – are unlawful to consume.
Ruling 768: It is also unlawful to consume those animals known as musukh. They include: The monkey, elephant, bear, rabbit, lizard, mouse and scorpion.
Ruling 769: It is forbidden to consume those animals which are originally najis – i.e. the dog and pig – and those animals which live underground, like urchins and snakes.
Ruling 770: Camels, cows, goats and sheep are permissible to consume, just as it is lawful to consume some wild animals such as cows, deers, and the like.
Ruling 771: As for the birds, those which are predatory are unlawful to consume, such as hawks; it is also forbidden to consume birds which glide more than they flap their wings during flight; in the case where both manners of flying are equally used or one does not know how a bird flies, if the bird has either a crop or a gizzard or a spur on the back of its feet, it is lawful to eat. Crows, bats and peacocks are also unlawful. Insects are also forbidden to consume, such as wasps, bees, flies and the like, as well as crawling insects, except for the locust if it can fly independently.
Animals Which Become Forbidden to Consume
Ruling 772: In three situations, an animal will become forbidden to eat:
(1) When it is jallal;
(2) When it is suckled by a pig;
(3) When a man has sexual intercourse with it – as an obligatory precaution – according to the rules set out below.
Ruling 773: The jallal animal is the animal which has eaten for a considerable period of time the excrement of humans, and does not eat along with it anything else except rarely. If the animal also eats other food with it in a considerable amount, then it is not considered as jallal and unlawful to eat.
Ruling 774: The jallal animal may cease to be jallal and will become lawful to eat if it is prevented from eating human excrement and is fed other food for a considerable period of time. For a camel, such a period is of forty days, twenty days for a cow, ten days for a sheep or goat, five days for a duck, and a day and a night for a fish.
Ruling 775: A male goat – rather, any animal as an obligatory precaution – which is suckled by a pig for a considerable period of time, is unlawful to eat, and it will become lawful if it is prevented from being suckled by the pig and is made to suckle from an animal of its same type or is fed with tahir feed, for a period of seven days.
Ruling 776: Any livestock which has been subjected to sexual intercourse by a man, or even a boy as an obligatory precaution, is unlawful to eat. This also extends to all animals, based on an obligatory precaution, which have been subject to sexual intercourse, whether they are males or females, even birds.
Ruling 777: If an animal becomes forbidden to consume by any of the three mentioned ways, their offspring are also forbidden, except that this prohibition applies to the jallal animal’s offspring and egg as an obligatory precaution.
Other Food and Drink
Ruling 778: The lawfulness of milk, rennet, and eggs depends on the lawfulness of the animal from which they are obtained, so if the animal is unlawful so are they.
Ruling 779: The following parts of a lawfully slaughtered animal are forbidden to eat: the intestinal waste, blood, penis, testicles, glands and spleen. As an obligatory precaution the womb, the female genitals, the cords alongside the spinal cord, the bone marrow in the spinal cord, the bladder and the gall bladder are also unlawful.
Ruling 780: The originally najis things as well as those things which have become najis and have not been made tahir are unlawful to consume.
Ruling 781: Mud and clay are forbidden to consume, as well as earth and sand as an obligatory precaution.
Ruling 782: The juices of grapes are not permissible to drink if they are boiled until it is reduced to a third of it. The same applies to the juices of raisins as an obligatory precaution.
Wine is unlawful, before it becomes vinegar, as well as every intoxicant, whether it is liquid or solid, although only those intoxicants which are originally liquid are najis
Ruling 784: It is unlawful to eat, drink or otherwise use anything that harms a person in such a way that it causes fear of one’s life or that of a believer, or it causes his disgrace and weakness, or even the loss of any of his abilities as an obligatory precaution.
Ruling 785: If medicine that one has to take is limited to what is unlawful, he should take only an amount that is necessary, except if it is from a pig or intoxicant, as they are unlawful unless one’s life depends on it.
Ruling 786: For somebody who is compelled, he may eat the unlawful in an amount that prevents him from dying.
Ruling 787: Eating and drinking and any other dealing of the property of those whose ownership is recognized by the Sharia is permissible provided that one has their permission or is sure of them being agreeable to this. Excluded from this are those mentioned in verse 61 of the chapter Al-Noor of the Holy Quran, who are: fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, the agent who has been entrusted with one’s keys, and one’s friends, as well as one’s spouses and children; therefore it is not necessary to be certain that they will allow it. As an obligatory precaution, one should not do so if it is probable that they will not allow it.
Ruling 788: It is permissible for one to eat the fruits of trees and palms and cultivations which he passes, according to the rules mentioned in more detailed books.
Ruling 789: It is not permissible for one to eat from food which he has not been invited to; in fact, even if he is invited, he cannot bring his son except if he knows that the host will be agreeable with it, or if he acts on a conventionally-accepted context that he is agreeable to it.
Ruling 790: It is forbidden to eat, or even just to sit, at a table where wine is drunk.
Ruling 791: Some eating etiquettes are recommended, amongst which are:
(1) Economising in eating;
(2) Washing the hands before and after eating;
(3) Saying “Bismillah...” before eating and “Alhamdulillah” after eating;
(4) Beginning with salt and ending with it;
(5) Not wasting the food;
(6) Eating and drinking with the right hand;
(7) Cleansing the teeth after eating.